Archives du mot-clé Malcolm X

Alex Haley (1921-1992)

AlexHaley (August 11, 1921 – February 10, 1992) was an American writer  and the author of The autobiography of Malcolm X published in 1965. It was Haley’s first book. It describes the trajectory of Malcolm X’s life from street criminal to national spokesman for the Nation of Islam  to his conversion to Sunni Islam. It also outlines Malcolm X’s philosophy of  black pride, black nationalism, and pan-Africanism. Haley wrote an epilogue to the book summarizing the end of Malcolm X’s life, including his assassination in New York’s  Audubon Ballroom . The Autobiography of Malcolm X has been a consistent best-seller since its 1965 publication.  The New York Times reported that six million copies of the book had sold by 1977. In 1998 TIME magazine ranked The Autobiography of Malcolm X as one of the 10 most influential nonfiction books of the 20th century. In 1966 Haley received the Anisfield-Wolf Book Awardfor The Autobiography of Malcolm X.

In 1976 he wrote a  novel based on his family’s history, going back to slavery days called roots. It started with the story of Kunta Kinte, who was kidnapped in Gambia in 1767 and transported to the province of Maryland to be sold as a slave.Haley claimed to be a seventh-generation descendant of Kunta Kinte, and his work on the novel involved twelve years of research, intercontinental travel, and writing. He went to the village of Juffure, where Kunta Kinte grew up and listened to a griot tell the story of Kinte’s capture.

 Roots was published in 37 languages. Haley won a special Pulitzer Price alex_haley

for his work in 1977. ABC adapted the book as a television miniseries of the same name and aired it in the same year to a record-breaking audience of 130 million viewers. In the United States the book and miniseries raised the public awareness of African-American history and inspired a broad interest in genealogy and the family history.

In 1979 ABC aired the sequel miniseries, Roots : the next generations, which continued the story of Kunta Kinte’s descendants.  In 2016,  History  aired a remarke of the original miniseries. Haley appeared briefly, portrayed by Tony Award winner Laurence Fishburne.

10 things you may not know about Nelson Mandela

1- He lived up to his name: Mandela’s birth name was Rolihlahla. In his Xhosa tribe, the name means pulling the branch of a tree or troublemaker. (The name « Nelson » was given to him by his teacher on his first day of elementary school. It was the 1920s, and African children were given English names so colonial masters could pronounce them easily).

2. He was a master of disguise: When Mandela was eluding authorities during his fight against apartheid, he disguised himself in various ways, including as a chauffeur. The press nicknamed him « the Black Pimpernel » because of his police evasion tactics. « I became a creature of the night. I would keep to my hideout during the day, and would emerge to do my work when it became dark, » he says in his biography, « Long Walk to Freedom. »

3. A bloody sport intrigued him: Besides politics, Mandela’s other passion was boxing. « I did not like the violence of boxing. I was more interested in the science of it – how you move your body to protect yourself, how you use a plan to attack and retreat, and how you pace yourself through a fight, » he says in his biography.

4- There’s a woodpecker named after him: From Cape Town to California, streets named after Mandela abound. But he’s also been the subject of some rather unusual tributes. Scientists named a prehistoric woodpecker after him: Australopicus nelsonmandelai. In 1973, the physics institute at Leeds University named a nuclear particle the ‘Mandela particle.’

5- He quit his day job: He studied law at the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg and opened the nation’s first black law firm in the city in 1952.

6- In prison, he was highly skilled at secretly passing notes. During his incarceration on infamous Robben Island, Mandela and the other prisoners would communicate by leaving notes in discarded matchboxes, under piles of dirty dishes, and taped in toilet tanks. Using these methods, Mandela and the other prisoners organized a hunger strike and succeeded in their effort to improve their living conditions.

7 . He had a cameo in a Spike Lee film: He had a big part in Spike Lee’s 1992 biopic « Malcolm X. » At the very end of the movie, he plays a teacher reciting Malcolm X’s famous speech to a room full of Soweto school kids. But the pacifist Mandela wouldn’t say « by any means necessary. » So Lee cut back to footage of Malcolm X to close out the film.

8- He probably won more awards than anyone in history. In addition to the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize, Mandela has received more than 250 awards, including honorary degrees from more than 50 universities worldwide. In 2001, he became the first living person to be made an honorary Canadian citizen, and he was the last person to receive the Lenin Peace Prize from the Soviet Union.

.9- There’s a global holiday in his honor. In 2009, the United Nations declared that Nelson Mandela International Day will be celebrated every year on July 18 (his birthday). The purpose of the day is to honor Mandela’s legacy and promote community service.

10- He was on the U.S. terror watch list: Mandela wasn’t removed from the U.S. terror watch list until 2008 — at age 89. He and other members of the African National Congress were placed on itbecause of their militant fight against apartheid.



“A people without the knowledge of their past history, origin and culture is like a tree without roots.”

Marcus Garvey

« The day will come when history will speak… Africa will write its own history…
it will be a history of glory and dignity. » – Patrice Lumumba

 » Freedom by any means necessary ». Malcolm X

« While revolutionaries as individuals can be murdered, you cannot kill ideas” – Thomas Sankara

“I am not African because I was born in Africa but because Africa was born in me.”
Kwame Nkrumah

« Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world. » Nelson Mandela

“Emancipate yourselves from mental slavery.
None but ourselves can free our minds.”
Bob Marley

« I believe it is very important to teach our people more about our history.
We can never be free until we know about ourselves. »
Muhammad Ali

“I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where
 they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.”
Martin Luther King Jr.Image