Mary Jane McLeod Bethune (July 10, 1875 – May 18, 1955) was a determined woman. She helped make education available to thousands of black americans. When she was a child, many people though that education was a waste of time for black children but t Mary wanted to go to school and her parents supported her. She graduated from Moody Bible Institute in 1895 and afterward taugh school in Georgia. In 1904 she moved to Daytona, Florida to establish a school for girls. Mary had only $ 1,50 in her pocket when she arrived in Daytona, but that didn’t stop her. She sold sweet potato pies to raise money for her school. She asked for donations from churches, clubs and anyone who would help. Her school became Bethune-Cookman University. It is an example of what a determinded person can acomplish. Mary used that same determination to fight for other equal rights for her people. She founded the National Council of Negro Women in 1935. She was also an advisor to four presidents of the United States. Her legacy lives on.
Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti (1900–1978) was a pioneering nationalist who fought against British colonialism. She was a pioneer African feminist and a human rights activist who was tireless in her campaigns for women’s rights and for economic, political, and social justice. She was an educator who gave a voice to the voiceless and education to the uneducated. Kuti was the mother of the activists Fela Anikulapo Kuti, a musician, Beko Ransome-Kuti, a doctor, and Professor Olikoye Ransome-Kuti, a doctor and a former health minister of Nigeria.
Jean Baptiste DuSable (1745-1848) « The founder of Chicago ».
Chicago, Illinois, is the third largest city in the United States. But few people know it was founded by a black man, Jean DuSable. Jean was born in Haïti, the world’s oldest black republic, he moved to St Louis when he became a fur trader. When the British took over St Louis, Jean moved to Peoria, Illinois where Native Americans helped him etablish a succesful trading business. Jean made many trips to Canada to bring back furs. He always passed a place called Eschikagov that he used as a lockout point. In 1774, he built a cabin there for his family. Other pionners built stores and homes near this post. The settlement grew into a city that became Chicago. Many years passed before Jean was credited with the founding of Chicago. In 1968, he was finally recognized as the man who founded one of the great cities of the world.
Sojourner Truth (1797-1883) was born a slave and was named Isabella Baumfree. New York, the state where she lives outlawed slavery in 1827 but Soujourner’s master didn’t care. He would not free her, so she ran away. When she was 46 years old, she decided to start her own campaign against slavery. She could not stand to see her people suffer any longer so she changed her name to Soujourner Truth. She chose that name because she planned to travel from place to place to tell the truth about slavery. Sojourner carried her anti-slavery message throughout th North, she spoke to anyone who would listen and to those who wouldn’t. Soujourner was often beaten for speaking out against slavery but this brave woman could not be stopped. She had a mission. In 1863, Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation that outlawed slavery, but the southern states did not recognize the law until they were defeated. After the civil war, Sojourner fought for black equality and women’s rights and she dedicated her life to opening the doors of freedom for all people.
Audley « Queen Mother » Moore (1898-1996)
Audley Moore became an ancestor on May 2 at the age of 98 in 1996. She was given the honorary title of `Queen Mother’ by an Ashanti tribe in Ghana. Mother Moore lived a long and active life, dedicated to public service and improvement of the lives of African-Americans. Born on July 28, 1898 in New Iberia, LA, to second generation freed blacks, she became a revered public figure in Harlem, best known as an advocate for Africa and African-Americans. Moore’s ideas and teachings of Pan-African Nationalism was influenced by great political personalities such as W.E.B. DuBois and Marcus Garvey. As a civil rights activist, Mother Moore worked on the defense of the Scottsboro boys. Internationally, she spoke on her disapproval of the Italo-Ethiopian war. « I am not a part-time struggler,’ she once said. `I’m in the movement for the liberation of African people full-time, 7 days a week, 24 hours per day, for life. »
Her career was influenced by the violence and hatred she endured as a young child and young woman. While in the fourth grade, Moore’s parents died and thus ended her formal education. During World War I while in Alabama, Moore was a volunteer nurse who involved herself in the first of her movements for the equality of blacks by organizing support services for black soldiers that were denied by the Red Cross. Mother Moore was drawn to the idea of black nationalism and economic independence by the oratory of Marcus Garvey, founder of the Harlem-based Universal Negro Improvement Association. She became an active member of the organization, and founded the Harriet Tubman Association to better the conditions of black women. Through this organization, Moore advocated issues such as higher wages, better education, and the lowering of food prices to help improve the conditions of the poor. Following her brief membership in the Communist party–at the time, the only organization that accepted her radical ideas–she focused her attention on seeking economic reparations for descendants of the victims of slavery, cultural identity, and education. She launched a national campaign in support of economic reparations. Moore believed that economic reparations were the first constructive step in black nationalists ideology. As an orator, her rhetoric on this issue was powerful: « Ever since 1950, I’ve been on the trail fighting for reparations. They owe us more than they could ever pay. They stole our language; they stole us from our mothers and fathers and took our names from us. They worked us free of charge 18 hours a day, 7 days a week, under the lash for centuries. We lost over 100 million lives in the traffic of slavery. »
In 1962, Mother Moore met with President John F. Kennedy, the United Nations, and the Congressional Black Caucus about the issue of economic reparations. She later organized and directed the Reparations Committee of Descendants of United States Slaves. One of her last public appearances was at the Million Man March in Washington, DC. Although weak, her poignant speech was delivered by an associate. Queen Mother Moore died in a Brooklyn nursing home from natural causes at age 98.